Currently, there is only screening for cervical cancer. The goal of screening is not only to find cervical cancer but also to find cell changes in the cervix (known as cervical dysplasia). Treating these cell changes can prevent cancer developing. Screening for and treating cell changes is highly effective at reducing the risk of cervical cancer.
If an HPV test is used as the primary screening procedure, the result will identify women who are at risk of cell changes and cancer. Further tests are done based on age, type of HPV infection and previous screening results.
Researchers recently discovered that screening for cell changes in the anus (anal dysplasia) can reduce the risk of anal cancer among people living with HIV. In the coming years, screening for anal cell changes and anal cancer may become standard of care for people living with HIV. More research is needed to see if anal cancer screening also works in other groups at increased risk of anal cancer, such as men who have sex with men.
There are no recommended screening tests to reduce the risk of vulvar or vaginal cancer, penile cancer or head and neck cancers.
If you notice any symptoms or changes to these parts of your body that are unusual for you, it is best to get them checked by your healthcare provider as soon as possible.